Kylix attributed to the Antiphon Painter

By
Ross Brendle
Ross Brendle is a Ph.D. student in the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art & Archaeology. His primary focus is the history of ancient Greek art, especially vase-painting of the Archaic Period. In 2013-14, he was the Michael Jameson fellow at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

  • Accession Number: JHUAM B11
  • Measurements: Height: 9 cm, Diameter: 30 cm
  • Material: Ceramic
  • Date/Culture: Greek, 490-480 BCE
  • Provenance: The Baltimore Chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America

Detail of the image in the tondo.

The exterior of this red-figure cup depicts the pankration, a Greek no-holds-barred fighting sport combining boxing and wrestling.  Only biting and eye gouging were banned.  Here, one of the athletes attempts to gouge his opponent and is reprimanded by the referee.  The interior shows a single boy, wrapped tightly in his mantle.  A sponge and strigil (an oil scraper used by athletes) hang in the background, placing the scene, like the exterior, in the gymnasium.  By enveloping himself in his garment, the boy exhibits the aidōs (modesty or shame) expected of a boy being courted by an older man.  From the inscription in front of him (ΗΟ ΠΑΙΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ , “the boy is beautiful”), it is clear that this boy is an object of desire.  The vase, then, depicts masculine beauty and athletic ability, which, according to Aristotle (in his Rhetoric), were the two facets of the masculine ideal.

The back of the vessel.

Several small holes indicate the cup was broken and repaired in antiquity.  It was obviously a prized possession of its ancient owner.